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  • Encapsulant: Incomplete fill/Wire sweep/Warpage/Delamination/Void
  • Substrates: Warpage/Contamination/Crack
  • Flux: Flux residue/Outgassing/Corrosion
  • Leadframe: Contamination
  • TSV: Delamination/Crack/Void/Non-protrusion
  • Interposer: Delamination/RDL bridge/Contamination
  • Micro-bump: Crack/Void/Cold joint/Bridge



Non-Destructive Analysis

  • Non-destructive analysis is the first step of failure analysis.
  • There are the technologies to detect the defects without damaging samples and which including two parts.
  • One is electrical test and the other is failure observation and localization. Electrical testing machines are function test, O/S test, curve tracer and so on.
  • The failure observation toolings are HR-OM, IR OM, X-ray, SAT, etc
  • The failure localization toolings are TDR, OBIRCH, thermal lock-in, etc.
Electrical Test TDR、Probing station、Curve tracer、DCT
Inspection Analysis OM、X-ray、SAT、Hi-resolution OM、IR-OM
Surface Analysis EDX
Structure Analysis W-SEM、FE-SEM、Table SEM
Failure Localization Lock-in thermography、OBIRCH

Destructive Analysis

  • After non-destructive analysis, the defect location can be determined.
  • The destructive samples preparations before observation are also call destructive analysis.
  • The most common uses are cross-section, ion milling, PECS, FIB, and etc.
  • Furthermore, SEM, EDX, XPS and ESCA could observe the failure or the defects.

Structure Analysis X-section、FIB、TEM、P-FIB
Surface Etch/Treatment Ion miller、PECS、FIB


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